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REAL ESTATE INVESTMENT GUIDE FOR BEGINNERS

According to Andrew Carnegie, ”90 % of all the world millionaires have stakes in real estate investment”. Furthermore,  Real estate investments have produced more ROI than most other forms of investments 

 

Why is that?

What is this investment?

Why are world elites Stacking up their bank account through this investment?

The answer boils down to few reasons;

  • Real estate investment is everlasting

    One key benefit that attracts smart investors in real estate investments is that it’s an imperishable asset. Unlike its counterparts, land does not come with an expiration date. It’s indestructible, it cannot be lost, stolen or can it be destroyed. Once acquired and fully paid for, it lasts forever

 

  • Appreciation

    The growing population of the human race is driving the demand for land. This increase in demand for land leads to increases in price. As the need to cater to the need of the growing population, the prices will always go up.

 

  • inflation

    The Uber wealthy classes are always mindful of inflation; will my money today buy the same value of products in 3 years? As a result of inflation, a specific amount of currency will buy less than before over some time. Inflation isn’t always bad because investors can plan for inflation by investing in assets that outperform the market during inflationary climates. As inflation rises, so do property values, and so does the amount a landowner can resell their property or charge tenants. This results in the landowners making more money over time. This helps to keep pace with the rise in inflation. For this reason, real estate income is one of the best ways to hedge an investment portfolio against inflation.

 

  • Passive income

    One thing the rich understand better than anyone else is ”diversification”. The fact that one tree doesn’t make an ocean. In a bid to multiply wealth, the elites often distribute their asset into several investment portfolios with real estate taking a large share of the stock. The stability and potential return of the real estate market makes the investment not only safe but a means of generating passive income

 

One of the perks of investing while working full time is to create a steady income stream that assures you of lifetime security that can be converted to immediate cash or used as a further investment for future wealth creation. As a business person, an entrepreneur, or a stay-at-home parent, property investment serves both immediate and futuristic purposes especially when it is gotten through the right medium.

The world of real estate is vast, for a beginner looking to venture into an investment, it might seem scary and intimidating. However, like every new journey, it’s one step at a time. By going through this write-up, you will understand everything a beginner needs to know before venturing into real estate investment.

If you are a beginner in the real estate sector or have experience in real estate investment, in this blog post you will get first-hand information on clear-cut reasons why you should invest in real estate. With our proven experience over time, we hope to make your transition into the real estate sector as smooth as possible.

guide to real estate investment

Real estate investment is quite vast as it covers areas such as Development, Sales and marketing, Brokerage, Property management, Lending, and Professional services. Research has shown that no matter what the market presents, real estate still offers many moneymaking opportunities for both first-time and experienced investors. These opportunities can be through either on a rental basis, homeownership, or land banking. This edition will focus more on the fundamental aspects to consider when putting together an investment plan.

One of the major things to look out for before buying any property especially when considering high return on investment is;

 

    1. Land Title in real estate investment

It makes sense to start this discussion with the elephant in the room: land titles. For every new investor in real estate that we encounter one question, we always come across is ” what is the title”. The importance of Land Titles in real estate cannot be overemphasized. It formes the very foundation of real estate investment. Any oversight on land titles can lead to loss of funds, damages to lives and property. Before you acquire any property, it is pertinent that you ask, know, and verify what title comes with the property. Let’s walk you through different types of land titles to help you better understand what to look out for when buying any piece of property

 

 

  •  C OF O

Arguably one of the most popular land titles in Nigeria and justifiably so because any property with a C of O guarantees the owner freedom from government acquisition. Certificate of Occupancy is usually issued by the State Government and it connotes that the state government has officially leased the piece of land to the applicant, for 99 years.

  • Excision

Government can decide to release a parcel of land back to the indigenous owners or some company as a form of compensation for residential and commercial developments. Such properties are considered excised, and an excision document is issued. This type of title also signifies that the property is free from government acquisition. Any excised property, when verified is safe to purchase

 

  • Gazette

A Gazette is an official record book where all special government details are spelled out, detailed, and recorded. A gazette will show the communities or villages that have been granted excision. This document shows the number of acres or hectares of land that the government has given to them. It is within those excised acres or hectares that the customary landowners or company are entitled to sell to the public.

  • Governors consent

Governors’ consent is considered a second-generation C of O. There can only be one (1) Owner of the Certificate of Occupancy on any property and it can not be replicated for another person once the land has been sold or transferred to another person. Any subsequent buyer will have to obtain a governor’s consent on their property before it can be seen as a legal transaction by the government. it’s essential a C of O property that has transferred ownership which means it’s a good property to invest in.

  • Deed of assignment and registered survey

This is simply an agreement between two parties over the landed property in which one party relinquishes their power of attorney and title to the other party. The deed of assignment is an important legal document that transfers interest or assigns the title of property from the seller (an assignor) to a new buyer called (the Assignee). The deed of assignment is assigned after the completion of any land transaction and the assignee now holds all the legal rights on that property including any future sales. It is also important that when the deed of assignment has been exchanged between the parties to the transaction, it is recorded or registered with the appropriate land registry where the land is situated for perfect purposes

 

 

Recommended readingDifferent land title documents in Nigeria and their effect on real estate investment   or land titles in real estate 

      2. Role of location In Real Estate Investment

Real estate investment comes in a different format, rental apartments, real estate development, land banking, etc. location plays a varying degree of importance in each form. For instance, the level of development in a location of raw land for the purpose of land banking is somewhat irrelevant compared to land for ”buy and build” purposes.
For land banking, investors will have to access the future worth rather than the present state while a ”buy and build” property relies heavily on the level of development in the area.

The location is a vital component of real estate investment that any new investor should keep an eye on. location can determine how quickly you can get your ROI. location also affects the value and price of any property. For example lands in Lagos go for an average of N30,000,000 on the mainland and N130,000,000 on the island and this is due to the high level of real estate investment activities in the metropolis. Apart from Lagos state, properties closer or on major access road gets a lot of commercial demand and hence the price is higher.  However, Smart investors are securing properties in developing sites of Lagos ie ibeju lekki as they can foresee the economic value of such areas in the future. Other investors prefer to buy properties lower in price and sell later when the demand and price are high ( land banking)

 

    3. Budget

The budget is the first thing to be considered when buying land. it does not matter if you have determined to buy land in Lagos or any other part of the country, the most important thing is having a budget. it is not about just having the desire to buy land, the real question is do you have the budget for it?

Irrespective of the amount you might have saved, it is always important to make research on the cost of buying land and the extra expenses that are associated with it. Irrespective of the real estate company, it’s important to ask for any other extra charge aside from the price of the property. Generally, most companies will have the following extra charges but not limited to this

  • Deed of an assignment fee
  • Registred survey fee
  • Plot demarcation fee
  • Agency fee
  • Development fee

Having a knowledge of  all these extra charges can help prepare your mind and pocket before venturing into the investment cycle

 

    4. Land measurement in real estate investment

 

This is another important factor you want to be aware of as potential land investors are land sizes or land measurement. You might have come across various terms such as plots, acres, hectares, etc., and probably don’t know the difference. They are different land sizes and also play vital roles in the prices of land, the price for a plot is different from the price of an acre, and so on. You have to be aware of the appropriate size of the land, hence knowing the terms

  • Plots

A plot is described as a market piece of land for farming or building. A plot is an arbitrary term used to describe a land division set out for a developmental purpose. Also, it is not unusual to see adverts like property for sale or plots of land for sale. However, important to know the size of a full plot in order not to be duped. The size of plots in Nigeria varies based on a different locations. The eastern part of Nigeria often measures a full plot as 464sqm ( 50 x 100) while in the southern part of Nigeria a full plot is measured as 600sqm ( 60x 120).

  • Acres

An acre is a bigger size compound to a plot. it is almost the equivalent of a standard football field-this is the standard unit of measurement used by most land sellers. it is one of the land sizes to consider when buying land. Identifying an acre by its measurement is easy, it is the product of a rectangle plot of land that is about
4,046 square meters or 43,560 square feet. An acre usually consists of 6 plots, measuring about 60 x 120ft. However, an acre is roughly 40% of a hectare.

  • Hectares(ha)

The hectare is the largest of the three sizes. A hectare measures about 100m x 100m or 328 feet x 328 feet or 10,000 square meters. A hectare is about two and a half acres which are usually about 15plots. What the size of a hectare should be, has been a bone of contention between prospective buyers and real estate developers. it is important to note that these measurements vary across Nigeria. Though the above measurements are standard, due to factors like land location, possession, and circumstances leading to the transaction, there are different variations in measurements. Before now plots were approximately 1000+ square meters but as the value and prices for land rose you get the same quote per plot but it can be 400 square meters or less in government reserved areas in cities like
Lagos, Kano, Kaduna, etc.

Other cities in Nigeria including new areas in Calaber offer about 1,100 square meters for commercial plots. in places like Niger-Delta where issues of land are usually tensed it is always hard to get anything above
450 square meters. This does not in any way mean that there are no states that standard measurements.

   Recommended reading: An in-depth look at land sizes in Nigeria

       5. Land Appreciation

It is of the popular belief that land is the only asset that does not depreciate over time. A plot of land in Victoria Island will remain intact after a hundred years if not tampered with. the land is God’s gift to man and does not depreciate. Buying land is one of the surest ways to invest in the real estate business. Rural areas often develop into urban areas, those who have invested by buying lands in those areas tend to get five folds of their investment because the area is now developed. This is why it is key to properly consider the location in which you are buying landed property in Nigeria. Development is one of the major drivers of land appreciation, it speaks to the worth and value of the property. Several factors can drive development to an area including but not limited to

  • Government policies

Regime changes or changes in power can bring about new policies that can drive the real estate market. lending rates, inflation policies, interest rates, etc are all government policies that might affect the value of property

  • Major investors

Private investors might come together to site a big project in any rural location which might be a major driver in such a location. A prime example of this can be sited ibeju lekki part of Lagos. immediately the Dangote refinery project was announced and the lekki deep seaport, prices of lands in such areas all doubled in prices. this happened in several areas in Nigeria when big investors bring changes and development in a particular area which goes ahead and skyrocket prices of houses, lands, and other properties in such areas

  • Infrastructure development in Real Estate Investment 

Infrastructure development plays a key role in price appreciation. Any new connectivity, transport, road, or transit hub, will act as a growth driver, as these are expected to bring more population and ultimately, more demand. Investors who time the market right can get the most out of their real estate investment. you can add value to a bare piece of land by fencing, connecting roads, connecting gatehouses, landscaping drainage, etc this development can drive the price of that land upwards

      6. Government Encumbrance

In Real Estate, Land can be classified as either free or acquired: A parcel of land is considered free if the government
has not indicated any interest whatsoever in that land. Such land is safe to buy because the title on the land can be perfected without issues. When you buy any property, it usually comes with titles ranging from deeds, excision, power of attorney, gazette, certificate of occupancy, governor’s consent, and a host of others. Oftentimes, the title determines the price.

However, Let’s set the record straight, every land is owned by the government. Yes, even the C of O properties is still government-owned. Any title can be revoked if the government deems the land for its project. That doesn’t mean you should stop buying properties, because proper verification and research can help you understand how titles and land acquisition works.

 

A land can either be FREE or COMMITTED.
A ”FREE” property has no government interest on it while a committed property has been mapped out to be used by the government for future purposes. Here is where it gets tricky. A property that is free from government interest might not have a good title because most often, it’s located in developing areas. However, this set of properties offer the highest ROI because they are generally more cost-friendly.

While buying lands with a good title guarantees you some sort of security, that is not the only way to go. Lands without good titles can go through a PERFECTION process and by the time it’s done, the price will skyrocket. A good rule of thumb is to first ask for coordinates of the property. Secondly, chart the Coordinates to verify if the property is free or committed, and lastly ask if the company has any plans to perfect the title if necessary.

Here PWAN MAX, we always make our coordinates readily available, sometimes even on the flyer of each property for proper verification When buying any property that is considered to be a work in progress, consider the title of that land and the time frame required in getting all necessary documentation. They typically always take longer than expected if it’s not done through the right source. Talking about titles, every land has its peculiarities.

 

     7.  Features of the property

Let’s refer you back to the previous example, imagine a building in a deserted area with no fencing, no drainage, no electricity, no gardens, and no landscaping. That is like going back to the ice age, trust me nobody will survive there. Some brands over promise and under deliver, this makes it paramount to look out for features of where ever you intend to live. The worth of any piece of property goes beyond its physical features. Look at it like this way, building a skyscraper in the middle of deserted land with no surrounding facilities to support its residents seems like a fruitless investment.

However, a skyscraper is sited around government hospitals, shopping malls, gyms outlets, etc. Will ensure residents will not just enjoy comfort but can as well find live outside their homes.

Real estate investment property features

 

For a faster ROI in real estate investment, history has proven properties close to both big governments proposed projects and already going on projects perform way better. One of the benefits we offer our clients is the provision of amazing features that guarantee stress-free living. The need for communal living cannot be over-emphasized. As a potential landowner, there is a need to watch out for the features that your proposed property comes with. You can even enjoy smart features as well. Watch out for a good drainage system. If you live in a place where traffic congestion is caused by bad drainage and then would not want to live in an area where there are such reoccurrences.

Drainage systems, if properly installed, should keep water away from your roof and especially the foundation thereby preventing foundation damage to a greater extent. What about electrification? We all know what the sound of generators does to the ears and even the health sometimes. All our estate at PWAN MAX comes with electrification as the top priority. Good features in an estate or a given property give room for stress-free living

    8. Topography

Good topography focuses on the position of land in terms of both the horizontal coordinate system such as latitude, longitude, and altitude. It is an added advantage to acquire a property that is not 100% dry and standing at a good height as well. When we take clients for inspection, our logistics team also ensures that clients are educated on the benefits of such to the property they intend to acquire.

    9. Income-generating potentials 

income generation through real estate investment Every good real estate investment should be a potential goldmine. Why invest in a property with little capacity to generate a more income-yielding avenue? One of the first things we look out for in any investment is the current capacity yielding project or the next big thing happening in the area where you desire to acquire any property.  A wise investor looks out for what serves as an additional means of income in the short or long term.

recommended reading: global  income generation potential of real estate 

 

   10. Miscellaneous cost

Property acquisition should be among top priorities for every income earner either in, middle or low class. Sometimes, they come with some additional charges that are not demanded or stated. Most times, there are extra payments to be made after land payment. Documentation fee, development fee, estate charge, etc. Most companies include this payment among the total payment of the property some make it optional. The development fee is meant for developing the estate and should be paid only when you intend to build on the land.

While documentation fees are necessary to transfer the ownership of the land from a company to an individual. That’s why we ensure that as a company, we make available every detail in our forms which contains frequently asked questions that readers digest. Having gone through the FAQ, if you think it is something you can handle, then you can proceed to make deposits.

 11. Economic Diversification 

Before buying a property, consider areas where there are job opportunities and a diverse economy abound. Buying In places where dwellers are solely reliant on one industry type may not be a wise decision thus the need to invariably consider the underlying asset of that property type. You want to invest in a very economically friendly asset.

KEY INTO AN INVESTMENT WITH PROXIMITY TO GOOD AMENITIES. What level of access does the property have to basic lifestyle opportunities? The need for good road networks, standard schools, hospitals, and recreation centers also serve as major

 

   12. SECURITY 

Whom you are buying from is one of the highlights of buying any property. You don’t want to spend your life savings or hard-earned currency on buying an investment and getting negative feedbacks as regards genuine ‘ownership’. The presence of land grabbers has deterred a lot of investors from venturing into this space. Thankfully, the backing of a recognized and registered real estate firm has helped reduce their effect on landowners. All our property is free from government encumbrance as well as that of the ‘Omo-onile’s’.

  • Why buy from a  real estate investment brand?

Most brand protects you from legal issues that might arise involving land dealings, they perfect the title of the property on your behalf, and sometimes offer an indemnity clause in their dealing. This offers a full refund to any property in case of future damage

 

   13.Promos/incentive

Budgeting is an important aspect of starting an investment journey but it should not be a limiting factor. What projections does that particular property come with? One of the things we do here at PWAN MAX is high consideration of pocket-friendly alternatives for potential investors. Look out for offers the company puts in place to ease payment. Yes, sometimes, you may be in luck as there could be promos or incentives available to paying clients. We are currently on a 6month promo that offers our clients to make an initial deposit of 50,000 and spread the balance over 6months with zero interest via our E-CAP PROMO. This avails you the option of going on inspection and carefully selecting a property that suits your investment needs.

 

14 Categories of Real Estate Investments

Before acquiring any property you need to give long thought to your goals, Do you want to hold long-term or short-term. Your goals will inform your budget and expectation before even making any commitment. We will walk you through the several forms and real estate investments we have in Nigeria.

If you have plans on developing, acquiring, owning, or reselling real estate, you need to have a good understanding of what you’re about to get involved in by dividing real estate into different categories including but not limited to:

  • Residential
  • Commercial
  • Industrial
  • Retail
  • Mixed-Use
  • land banking

 

  • Residential

Residential properties are structures such as houses, apartments, and buildings where individuals or families have an agreement with the owner(landlord) and pay to live in the property. The duration of their stay is usually based on the rent or lease agreement. rent could be paid monthly or every quarter, most residential rents and leases are on a 12months basis in Nigeria. This is the most popular type of real estate investment and also one of the most lucrative.

  • Commercial real estate investment 

Commercial properties consist mostly of office buildings, skyscrapers, shops, event centers, and fields or open spaces. if you decide to take out a little of your savings and construct a small building with individual offices, you can lease them out to start-ups and small business owners who would pay you to make use of the property.

  • Industrial real estate investment 

Industrial real estate refers to properties used to develop, manufacture, or produce goods and products, as well as logistics real estate that supports the movement and storage of products and goods. These buildings aren’t as glamorous as other types of real estate such as glimmering skyscrapers, well-manicured multifamily communities, or crowd-drawing shopping centers. However, industrial real estate is vital because these properties are often referred to as the starting point of the industrial economy.

  • Retail

Retail property types are properties used to market and sell consumer goods and services. This category includes single-tenant retail buildings, small neighborhood shopping centers, larger centers with grocery store anchor tenants, and “power centers” with large anchor stores.

  • Mixed-Use

Mixed-use properties are facilities that serve more than one purpose for their owners, it could include two or more types of facilities. The most common types of these properties are commercial and residential. in this case, the facility usually has a retail shop in front of the property with the house behind or inside.

  • land banking 

Rather than saving your cash in the bank and earning at most 1% interest yearly or investing in forex trading/stocks which is very volatile and unpredictable, another option you might consider is land banking. just like the name sound involves, acquiring a parcel of land at a cheap price and reselling when later at a much higher price. land banking is growing in popularity in recent years especially in Nigeria because investors seek to invest their cash in a tangible, fixed asset. One that cannot be broken, stolen, or destroyed.

one of the very instances of the huge return land banking can offer occurred in lekki, Lagos state. as of 2003, property on the island was offered to some investors at a range of 700k – 1M per plot. most neglected this offer, some said it was fake, others didn’t see the value of putting money in an area with little or no development. currently, a plot in sangotedo areas of Lagos goes for nothing less than 50 million. this is one instance of how land banking can blow up and make investors filthy rich in just a few years

Vacant land gets ignored by most new investors because it just doesn’t sound exciting. This causes a lot of would-be land investors to overlook a lot of the advantages that land has over traditional real estate investments (e.g. – houses, apartment buildings, commercial properties, etc.). Unlike most residential and commercial buildings, land costs very little to own…. no utility payments, no tenant problems, no termite infestations, no leaky faucets, no broken toilets, etc

Most real estate companies offer payment plans of up to 6 months which makes payment very flexible especially for first-time buyers.

  15. Mortgage in real estate investment

Think of a mortgage as a loan you take from the bank but can only be used for a house or land transaction. the bank acts as a lender who gives a loan to an individual to purchase land or buildings, with the repayment spread across a period of time. If you can’t keep up your repayments, the lender ie the bank can take back your home and sell it, to recoup their money. mortgages are mainly used to secure massive real estate purchases. The bank makes the entire payment of the property upfront while the borrower repays the principal, plus interest, over a period of time until she or he owns the property free and clear

There are over 30 mortgage banks in Nigeria, among whom are First Trust Mortgage Bank Plc, Mutual Alliance Savings & Loans, Haggai Mortgage Bank Ltd, Federal Housing Authority (FHA) Mortgage Bank, Lagos Building Investment Company Plc, etc., where anyone who meets the requirements can access a mortgage. The apex body enabling the operations of mortgage banks in Nigeria is the Central Bank of Nigeria. 

 

Why real estate investment?

No doubt that real estate investment is coming more into the limelight, made evident with the number of real estate agents/ realtors in Nigeria. people are waking up and realizing the benefits of it and a need to own a portion of the earth. however, there is still a lot of grounds to cover especially for new investors. let’s walk you through on advantages and disadvantages of real estate investment

 16. Advantages of real estate investment 

  • Real estate investment is easy to grasp

When you start investing, it can be difficult to understand everything you need to know to make a profit. Many types of investments rely on abstract concepts and complex algorithms, which are especially difficult to understand. Real estate, on the other hand, involves the purchase of physical property and most people are familiar with real estate to some degree. Investing in real estate can be much easier to understand than complex investments developed by mathematicians.

  •  Real Estate investment  Is Improvable

After you buy a stock, you hold it for a period of time and hopefully sell it for a profit. The success of the stock depends on company management and their corporate success, which is out of your control. In contrast, real estate investments are directly under your control. Though you can’t control demographic and economic changes or acts of God, you can control many things relating to the physical property and tenants. With good management of your overall real estate portfolio, you can tangibly improve the value of your investment and build wealth.

  •  Real Estate investment is a Hedge Against Inflation

Real estate is one of the few assets that reacts proportionately to inflation. As inflation goes up, housing values and rents go up. Though real estate, in general, is a good hedge against inflation, rental properties that are released every year are especially effective, since monthly rents can be adjusted upward in inflationary periods. For this reason alone, therefore, real estate is one of the best ways to hedge an investment portfolio against inflation.

  •  Real Estate Properties Exist in an Inefficient Market

Unlike the stock market, the real estate market is full of inefficiencies. There is a lack of transparency relating to individual property values and also the strength of different markets, which means that real estate investments have the potential for very high profits. Real estate investors who do their research, especially with help from industry experts, can find great real estate bargains.

  •  Real Estate Can Be Financed and Leveraged

Of course, you can technically purchase stocks and other assets using debt, but this can be very risky because the financing is not to purchase a hard asset. Real estate, on the other hand, is a market where products are usually bought with debt. Real estate investments purchased with hard money or a mortgage can be structured in ways that are rather safe and affordable so that large purchases can be made with a relatively small initial investment. The result is the purchase of a hard asset that appreciates year-over-year and paying for it primarily with other people’s money.

  17. Disadvantages of real estate investment

  • Real Estate Has Higher Transaction Costs

When purchasing shares of a stock, the transaction cost for the trade is very low, often just a few dollars. But when purchasing real estate, the transaction costs are considerably higher. Unlike other types of investments, real estate transaction costs can significantly affect the value of the investment and make it more difficult to turn a profit.

  • Real Estate Has Low Liquidity

Many investments are highly liquid and can be bought and sold for a profit in a fraction of a second, as with high-frequency stock trading. But real estate investments are comparably illiquid because properties can’t be quickly and easily sold without a substantial loss in value.

Real estate investors must be prepared to own a property for months and years, especially if it will be leased out.

  •  Real Estate Requires Management and Maintenance

Once an investor purchases a property, it must be rehabbed, maintained, and managed. Financing payments, real estate taxes, insurance, management fees, and maintenance costs can add up quickly, especially if the property sits empty for extended periods of time.

  •  Real Estate Markets Have Significant Inefficiencies

As we’ve already discussed above, the market’s inefficiencies can be advantageous to investors. But here we want to also mention the disadvantages, which can be illustrated by investors purchasing properties sight unseen at auction.

The most aggressive investors purchase real estate based on minimal information and don’t know whether they’ve made a good deal until paying for the property and then inspecting the property. Likewise, investors with rental property deal with fluctuating demographics and volatile economies, which can either add or take away from their bottom-line profits.

  • Real Estate Creates Liabilities

Real estate investing involves taking on a great deal of financial and legal liability.

All the disadvantages mentioned above add to the liability a real estate investor takes on when purchasing, financing, rehabbing, leasing, managing, and maintaining a property. Even though investment properties may be in a corporation, there are often personal guarantees associated with the business and the risk of losing the income and profits generated by the company.

 

CONCLUSION

Real estate sector in nigeria is plagued with mis infomration, fears and doubt. Its warrented because one cannot be more careful to avoid loss of und, lives or property. There is no  miracle fix but through this guide you can have an idea on where to start, things to look out for and correct questions to ask before sending your hard earned money to anybody.

 

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